REVIEW PAPER - Yellow Fever in Nigeria: A Review of Past, Current, and Future Strides

Anyebe B. Onoja, Temitope O. Faleye, Johnson A. Adeniji, Rosemary A. Audu, Sunday A. Omilabu, Babatunde L. Salako

Abstract

Since 1985, there has been resurgence of yellow fever in Africa with outbreaks occurring in more than 33 countries. From that time, thousands of cases have occurred in Nigeria which is the most populous country in Africa. Semi-urban and urban centres across the country are densely populated, with numerous sparsely populated rural settings in every State, some of which contain heavy forests. A wide-range of vegetation zones exists which lead to smooth transition of several tropical climates. As a result, there is preponderance of Aedes species in many parts of the country especially during the rainy season when relative humidity is high. Vector control is not applicable to jungle yellow fever, but infection in human population can be prevented by vaccination. Yellow fever deaths were recently reported in Nigeria, causing panic and public outcry. This review highlights the epidemiological trajectory of yellow fever, the past, and the present and future efforts in the country with a view to providing in-depth knowledge of yellow fever activities in order to enhance public health.

Keywords

Yellow fever, Aedes aegypti, Nigeria

Full Text:

PDF

References

Adu FD, Adeniji JA, Tomori O, & Adelasoye A (1993). Yellow fever outbreak in Ipetu-Ijesa: response after mass vaccination. Rev Roum Virol. 44(1-2):3-7.

Agwua EJ, Igbinosa IB, & Isaac C (2016). Entomological assessment of yellow fever-epidemic risk indices in Benue State, Nigeria, 2010–2011. 161:18-25.

Baba M, Logue CH, Oderinde B, Abdulmaleek H, Williams J, Lewis J, Laws TR, Hewson R, Marcello A, & D' Agaro P (2013). Evidence of arbovirus co-infection in suspected febrile malaria and typhoid patients in Nigeria. J Infect Dev Ctries. 7(1):051-059

Bosio CF, Beaty BJ, & Black WC (1998). Quantitative genetics of vector competence for dengue-2 virus in Aedes aegypti. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 59: 965–970.

Carey DE, Kemp GE, Troup JM, White HA, Smith EA, Addy RF, Fom ALMD, Pifer J, Jones EM, Brls P, & Shope RE (1972). Epidemiological aspects of the 1969 yellow fever epidemic in Nigeria. Bull. World Health Org. 46: 645-651.

Carter HR (1931). Yellow Fever: an Epidemiological and Historical Study of its Place of Origin. Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins Company, pp. 130-245.

Carvalho VL, Nunes, MRT, Silva EVP, Gomes M, Casseb SM, & Rodrigues SG (2008). Isolamento do vírus da febre amarela em células C6/36 a partir de lotes de mosquitos capturados em jataí—GO. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 41:200-212.

de Sousa Manso C. Mass Vaccination against Yellow Fever in Brazil. In: Smithburn KC, Duriex C, Koerber R, Penna HA, Dick GWA, Courtois G, de Sousa Manso C, Stuart G, 9. Bonnel PH. (1956). YF Vaccination. Monograph Series No 30. Geneva: WHO. pp. 123-139.

DeCocka KM, Nasidi A, Enriqueze J, Cravenb RB, Okaforh BC, Monath T, Tukei, PM, Lichfield P, Fabiyi A, Ravaonjanaharyi C, & Sorungbej (1988). A. Epidemic yellow fever in eastern Nigeria, 1986. Lancet. 331(8586): 630-633.

Diallo M, Ba Y, & Sall AA, et al., Amplification of the sylvatic cycle of dengue virus type 2, Senegal, 1999– 2000: entomologic findings and epidemiologic considerations. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2003; 9:362–367.

Durieux C (1956). Mass yellow fever vaccination in French Africa South of Sahara. In: Smithburn KC, Duriex C, Koerber R, Penna HA, Dick GWA, Courtois G, de Sousa MC, Stuart G, Bonnel PH, Eds. Yellow Fever Vaccination. WHO; Geneva. pp. 115–121

Durieux C (1956). Preparation of Yellow Fever Vaccine at Institut Pasteur, Dakar. In: Smithburn KC, Duriex C, Koerber R, Penna HA, Dick GWA, Courtois G, de Sousa Manso C, Stuart G, Bonnel PH. YF Vaccination. Monograph Series No 30. Geneva: WHO, pp. 31-32.

Finlay CJ (1912). Trabajos Selectos. Habana, Cuba, pp. 200-250

Galazka A, Milstien J, & Zaffran M (1997). Thermostability of vaccines. EPI. Advance draft. WHO/EPI/GEN/97. Rev.1,

Gardner CL & Ryman KD (2010). Yellow fever: a reemerging threat. Clin Lab Med. 30(1):237-60.

Haddow AJ (1965). Yellow fever in central Uganda, 1964 Part I. Historical introduction. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 59:436–40.

Henderson BE, Metselaar D, Cahill K, Timms GL, Tukei PM, & Williams MC (1968). Yellow fever immunity surveys in northern Uganda and Kenya and Eastern Somalia, 1966-1967. Bull World Health Organ. 38:229–37.

Hobson W (1963). World Health and History. Bristol: Wright, p13-25.

Kelly HA (1907). Walter Reed and Yellow Fever. New York, McClune, Phillips and Co, pp. 1607-2000.

Lepiniec L, Dalgarno L, Huong VTQ, Monath TP, Digoutte J-P, & Deubel V (1994). Geographic distribution and evolution of yellow fever viruses based on direct sequencing of genomic cDNA fragments. J Gen Virol. 75:417–23.

Meegan JM. Yellow fever vaccine. WHO/EPI/GEN/91.06. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1991.

Mims CA, Playfair JH, Roitt IM, Wakelin D, Williams R, & Anderson RM (1995). Medical Microbiology. London, UK: Mosby, pp. 30-32.

Ministry of Health, Government of Kenya. Field Guide for Yellow Fever Surveillance. Nairobi, Kenya, 1996.

Monath T. Yellow Fever. In: Monath T, Ed. The Arboviruses; Epidemiology and Ecology. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1988; 139-231.

Monath TP & Cetron MS (2002). Prevention of Yellow Fever in Persons Traveling to the Tropics. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 34:1369–78.

Monath TP, Lee VH, Wilson DC, Fagbami A, and Tomori O. (1974). Arbovirus Studies in Nupeko Forest, a Possible Natural Focus of Yellow Fever Virus in Nigeria. Trans. R. Trop. Med. Hyg. 68: 30-38.

Monath TP (1991). Yellow Fever: Victor, Victoria? Conqueror, Conquest? Epidemics and Research in the Last Forty Years and Prospects for the Future. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 45(1):1-43.

Mutebi JP, Rijnbrand RC, Wang H, Ryman KD, Wang E, Fulop LD, Titball R, & Barrett AD (2004). Genetic relationships and evolution of genotypes of yellow fever virus and other members of the yellow fever virus group within the Flavivirus genus based on the 3' noncoding region. J Virol. 78(18):9652

Mutebi J-P, and Wang H, Li L, Bryant JE, & Barrett ADT (2001). Phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships among yellow fever isolates in Africa. J Virol. 75:6999–7008.

NCDC, 2019. Yellow fever monthly situation report in Nigeria SN12;wk27-31. p1-4.

Okello GBA, Agata N, Ouma J, Cherogony SC, Tukei PM, & Ochieng W (1993). Outbreak of yellow fever in Kenya. Lancet. 341:489.

Onoja AB, Adeniji JA & Olaleye OD. High rate of unrecognized dengue virus infection in parts of the rainforest region of Nigeria. Acta Tropica 2016; 160:39-43.

Onoja AB, Adeniji JA, & Opayele AV (2016). Yellow fever vaccination in Nigeria: Focus on Oyo State. Highland Medical Research Journal. 16(1); 37-41.

Onoja B & Ibok U (2016). Yellow fever outbreaks in Africa. The AfSPID Bulletin. 4(2):11-15.www.fidssa.co.za/SASPID.

Onyango CO, Grobbelaar AA, Gibson GVF, Sang RC Sow A, Swanepoel R, & Burt FJ (2004). Yellow Fever Outbreak, Southern Sudan, 2003. Emerging Infectious Dis., 10(9):1668-1670.

Peters W & Gilles HM (1995). Color Atlas of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. London, UK: Mosby-Wolfe, pp. 4-9.

Reiter P, Cordellier R, Ouma JO, McLean RG, Cropp CB, Savage HM, Sanders EJ, Marfin AA, Tukei PM, Agata NN, & Gubler DJ (1998). First Recorded Outbreak of Yellow Fever in Kenya, 1992-1993. II. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 59(4):650-6.

Robertson S (1993). Yellow Fever; the Immunological Basis for Immunization 8. WHO/EPI/GEN/93.18. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO. pp. 23-29.

Sanders EJ, Marfin AA, Tukei PM, Kuria G, Ademba G, Agata NN, Ouma JO, Cropp CB, Karabatsos N, Reiter P, Moore PS, & Gubler DJ (1998). First recorded outbreak of yellow fever in Kenya, 1992–1993. I. Epidemiologic investigations. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 59:644–9.

Simmonds P, Becher B, Bukh J, Gould EA, Meyers G, Monath T, Muerhoff S, Pletnev A, Rico-Hesse R, Smith DB, Stapleton JT, & ICTV Report Consortium (2017). ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Flaviviridae, Journal of General Virology, 98:2–3.

Smith A (1951). Yellow Fever in Galveston, Republic of Texas, 1839. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press, pp. 137-200

Stokes A, Bauer JH, & Hudson NP (1928). Experimental Transmission of Yellow Fever to Laboratory Animals. JAMA, 8: 103-64.

Stokes A, Bauer JH, & Hudson NP (1928). Transmission of Yellow Fever to Macacus Rhesus: Preliminary Note. JAMA, 1928; 90: 253-54.

Strode GK, Bugher JC, Austin-Kerr J, Smith HH, Smithburn KC, Taylor RM, Theiler M, Warren AJ, & Whitman L (1951). Yellow Fever. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 1951. pp. 180-193.

Theiler M & Smith HH (1937). The use of yellow fever virus modified by in vitro cultivation for human immunization. J Exp Med. 65: 787–800.

Tomori O (2002). Yellow fever in Africa: public health impact and prospects for control in the 21st century. Biomedica. 22(2):178-210.

Tomori O (2004). Yellow fever: the recurring plague. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 41(4):391-427.

Vainio J & Felicity Cutts F (1998). Yellow fever. Geneva, Switzerland WHO/EPI/GEN/98.11 WHO. pp 9-30

Vasconcelos PF (2003). Yellow fever. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 36:275–93.

Vaughan MA (2018) Research Enclave in 1940s Nigeria: The Rockefeller Foundation Yellow Fever Research Institute at Yaba, Lagos, 1943–49. Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 92(1):172-205.

Weaver SC & Vasilakis N (2009). Molecular evolution of dengue viruses: contributions of phylogenetics to understanding the history and epidemiology of the preeminent arboviral disease. Infection, genetics and evolution: J of Mol Epid and Evol Genet in Infect Dis. 9:523–540.

WHO 1992. Division of Epidemiological Surveilance and Health Situation and Trend Assessment. Global Health Situation and Projections: Estimates. Geneva, Switzerland, pp 15-35.

WHO 1994. Field Guide for District Level Staff on Priority Communicable Disease Surveillance. Brazzaville, Congo: WHO Regional Office for Africa, pp17-23.

WHO, 1996a. Inclusion of Yellow Fever Vaccine in the EPI, Gambia. Wkly Epidemiol. Rec. 71: 181-85.

WHO, 1996b. Yellow Fever. Wkly Epidemiol. Rec. 71(42): 313-18.

WHO, 2019a. Nigeria launches Yellow fever vaccination reactive campaign to contain outbreak in Ebonyi State. https://www.afro.who.int/news/nigeria-launches-yellow-fever-vaccination-reactive-campaign-contain-outbreak-ebonyi-state.

WHO, 2019b. Emergencies preparedness, response, Disease Outbreak News (DONs). https://www.who.int/csr/don/08-october-2019-yellow-fever-nigeria/en/>

WHO. Prevention and Control of Yellow Fever in Africa. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1986.

WHO, 1996. The state of world health: world health report. Geneva: WHO, 1996:1–59.

Zeller HG, Traore-Lamizana M, Monlun E, Hervy JR, Mondo M, Digoutte JR (1992). Dengue-2 virus isolation from humans during an epizootic in southeastern Senegal in November, 1990. Research in virology. 143:101–102.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.