REVIEW PAPER - Environmental chemical risk factors of breast cancer in Nigeria II: Adolescent hormonal contraceptives use

Yetunde M Olumide, Olusola O. Ayanlowo, Ayesha O. Akinkugbe, Erereoghor Otrofanowei

Abstract

Globocan’s 2018 cancer statistics show increasing rates of breast cancer in Nigeria. There is sufficient evidence in humans that hormonal contraceptive is a breast cancer risk factor particularly among African American women who begin use before 20 years of age or before first pregnancy. Nigerian breast cancer patients have identical subtypes as African Americans i.e triple negative tumors, early age of onset, clinically aggressive, and poor prognosis.

Data from Nigeria show that 37.4% adolescent girls engage in high-risk sexual behaviour. For adolescent girls, dual use of condom and other hormonal contraceptives have been recommended to prevent pregnancy and acquisition of STI/HIV. Adolescents in Nigeria have uncensored access to all the contraceptive mix including hormonal contraceptives. There are also some ethical concerns.

There are extremely harmful socio-cultural and socio-economic determinants that promote early sexual debut, Teenage Pregnancy, and Child Marriage. There are also grave health related, social and economic consequences for mother and child, and the community. Both Teenage Pregnancy and Child Marriage undermine nearly every Millennium Development Goal. The notable reason given by some fathers for embracing Child Marriage was to protect daughters from what was perceived as “unwholesome” Western values that permit loss of virginity, pre-marital sex and high adolescent sexual networking, necessitating the use of contraceptives.

Hormonal contraceptive is a modifiable risk factor of breast cancer. Appropriate early pre-adolescent and adolescent parental care and nurturing before the crisis stage in godly principles is the gold standard for preventing adolescents’ use of contraceptives. Adolescent pregnancy and Child Marriage are not safe options.

Keywords

Breast cancer: Hormonal contraceptives, Adolescents

Full Text:

PDF

References

Interagency Breast Cancer and Environmental Research Coordinating Committee (IBCERCC) (2013). Breast Cancer and the Environment: Prioritizing Prevention. [Internet] [cited 2021 Dec 6]. Available from https://ww.niehs.nih.gov/about/borads/ibcercc/

Hiatt RA & Brody JG (2018). Environmental Determinants of Breast Cancer. Annual Review of the Public Health. 39:113-133

Bethea TN, Rosenberg L, Hong C-C, Troester MA, Lunetta KL, Bandera EV, Schedin P, Kolonel LN, Olshan AF, Ambrosone CB, & Palmer JR (2015). A case-control analysis of oral contraceptive use and breast cancer subtypes in the African American breast cancer epidemiology and risk consortium. Breast Cancer Research. 17:22

Urban M, Banks E, Egger S, Canfell K, O’Connell D, Beral V, & Sital F (2012). Injectable and oral contraceptive use and cancers of the breast, cervix, ovary, and endometrium in black south African women: Case-control study. PLoS Medical Journal. 9:e1001182.

Narod SA, Dubé MP, Klijn J, Lubinski J, Lynch HT, Ghadirian P, Provencher D, Heimdal K, Moller P, Robson M, Offit K, Isaacs C, Weber B, Friedman E, Baruch RG, Rennert G, Pasini B, Wagner T, Daly M, Garber JE, Neuhausen SL, Ainsworth P, Olsson H, Evans G, Osborne M, Couch F, Foulkes WD, Warner E, Kim-Sing C, Olopade O, Tung N, Saal HM, Weitzel J, Merajver S, Villars MG, Jernstrom H, Sun P, & Brunet JS. (2002). Oral Contraceptives and the Risk of Breast Cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers. JNCI Journal of National Cancer Institute. 94:1773–1779.

Urban M, Banks E, Egger S, Canfell K, O’Connell D, Beral V, & Sital F (2012). Injectable and Oral Contraceptive Use and Cancers of the Breast, Cervix, Ovary, and Endometrium in Black South African Women: Case–Control Study. PLOSOne Medical Journal. 9:e1001182.

Allot EH, Geradts J, Cohen Sm, Khoury T, Khoury T, Zirpoli GR, Bshara W, Davis W, Omilian A, Nair P, Ondracek RP, Cheng TD, Miller CR, Hwang H, Thorne LB, O’Connor S, Bethea TN, Bell ME, Hu Z, Yan Li Y, Kirk EL, Sun X, Ruiz-Narvaez EA, Perou CM, Palmer JR, Olshan AF, Ambrosone CB, & Troester MA. (2018) Frequency of breast cancer subtypes among African American women in AMBER consortium. Breast Cancer research 20-12.

Adeniyi AA, Dawodu OO, Habeebu MY, Oyekan AO, Bashira MA, Martind MG, Keshinroe SO, & Fagbenro GT. (2020) Distribution of Breast Cancer Subtypes Among Nigerian Women and Correlation to the Risk Factors and Clinicopathological Characteristics. World Journal of Oncology 11: 165-172

Adebamowo CA, Famooto A, Ogundiran TO, Aniagwu T, Kkwodimmah C, & Akang EE (2008). Immunohistochemical and molecular subtypes of breast cancer in Nigeria. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 110:183-188

Akarolo-Anthony SN, Ogundiran TO, & Adebamowo CA (2010). Emerging breast cancer epidemic: evidence from Africa. Breast Cancer Research. 12(Suppl 4): 58

Global Cancer Data: GLOBOCAN 2018 [Internet] 2018 [cited 2021 Nov 4] Available from: uicc.org/news/global-cancer-data-globocan-2018

Azubuike SO, Muirhead C, Hayes L, & McNally R (2018). Rising global burden of breast cancer: the case of sub-Saharan Africa (with emphasis on Nigeria) and implications for regional development: a review. World Journal of Surgical Oncology. 16:1–13.

Jedy-Agba E, Curado MP, Ogunbiyi O, Oga E, Fabowale T, Igbinoba F, Osubar G, Out T, Kumai H, Koechhlin A, Osinubi P, Dakun P, Blantter W, & Adebamowo CA. (2012). Cancer incidence in Nigeria: A report from population-based cancer registries. Cancer Epidemiology. 36:e271–e278.

Porter P (2008). “Westernizing” women’s risk? Breast cancer in lower-income countries. New England Journal of Medicine. 358: 215-216.

Amoo B (2017). Contraceptive use and the adolescent girl child. HealthThink Team. September 26, 2017. https://healththink.org/contraceptive-use-and-the-adolescent-girl-child/

World Health organization. Maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health: Adolescent health epidemiology.

http://www.who.int/materna_child_adolescent/epidemiology/adolescence/en/

World Health Organization (WHO) (2020). Family planning/contraception methods. https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/family-planni...

Cecil A (1994). Can HIV pass through the pores in latex condoms? The Straight Hope. https://www.straightdope.com/columns/read/1178/can-hiv-pass-through-the-pores-in-latex-condoms/

Blanc AK, Tsui A, Croft TN, & Trevitt JL (2009). Patterns and Trends in Adolescents’ Contraceptive Use and Discontinuation in Developing Countries and Comparisons with Adult Women. International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive health. 35:63-71.

Oyedele OA, Wright SCD, & Maja TMM (2013). Prevention of teenage pregnancies in Soshanguve, South Africa: Using the Johnson behavioural system model. Africa Journal of Nursing and Midwifery. 15:95-108.

Jewkes R, Vundule C, Maforah F, & Jordan E (2001). Relationship dynamics and teenage pregnancy in South Africa. Social Science & Medicine 52:733-744.

Caldwell JC & Caldwell P (2002). The Fertility Transition in Sub-Saharan Africa. A paper presented at the Conference. Fertility and the Current South African Issues of Poverty, HIV/AIDS and Youth. Pretoria, South Africa.

Findlay S (2017). Nigerian women face their fears and start using contraception. Special Report Health Sector. The Financial Times Limited.https://www.ft.com/content/02fb4c8e-75ff-ile7-a3e8-60495fe6ca71.

Otoide VO, Oronsaye F, & Okonofua F (2001). Why Nigerian adolescents seek abortion rather than contraceptives: Evidence from focus group discussions. International Perspective on Sexual and Reproductive Health. 27:77-81.

Alayande A, Bello-Garko B, Umeh G, & Nuhu I (2019). Access to contraceptives for adolescents in northern Nigeria—a cross-sectional study from three secondary health facilities in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna. [version 1; peer review: 1 approved with reservations] Gates Open Research. 3:1476 (https://doi.org/10.12688/gatesopentres. 12968.1)

American Cancer Society (2017). Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2017-2018 [Internet]. Atlanta: American Cancer Society, Inc; [cited 2021 Dec 6]. Available from: https://www.cancer.org/content/dam/cancer-org/research/cancer-facts-and-statistics/breast-cancer-facts-and-figures/breast-cancer-facts-and-figures-2017-2018.pdf

Federal Government of Nigeria. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999. https://publicofficialsfinancialdisclosure.worldbank.org/sites/fdl/files/assets/law-library-files/Nigeria_Constitution_1999_en.pdf

Federal Ministry of Health (2014). Guidelines for young persons’ participation in research and access to sexual and reproductive health services in Nigeria. https://www.popcouncil.org/uploads/pdfs/2014HIV-YoungPersonsSRH-Nigeria.pdf

Adedokun O, Adeyemi O, & Dauda C (2017). Child marriage and maternal health risks among young mothers in Gombi, Adamawa State, Nigeria: implications for mortality, entitlements and freedoms. African health Science. 16(4): 986-999

Global Cancer Data: GLOBOCAN 2018 [Internet] 2018 [cited 2021 Nov 4] Available from: uicc.org/news/global-cancer-data-globocan-2018

Azubuike SO, Muirhead C, Hayes L, & McNally R (2018). Rising global burden of breast cancer: the case of sub-Saharan Africa (with emphasis on Nigeria) and implications for regional development: a review. World Journal of Surgical Oncology 16, 63. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12957-018-1345-2

American Cancer Society (2017). Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2017-2018 [Internet]. Atlanta: American Cancer Society, Inc.; [cited 2021 Dec 6]. Available from: https://www.cancer.org/content/dam/cancer-org/research/cancer-facts-and-statistics/breast-cancer-facts-and-figures/breast-cancer-facts-and-figures-2017-2018.pdf

Interagency Breast Cancer and Environment Research Coordinating Committee (IBCERCC) (2013). Breast Cancer and the Environment: Prioritizing Prevention. [Internet]. [cited 2021 Dec 6]. Available from: https://www.niehs.nih.gov/about/boards/ibcercc/

Allot EH, Geradts J, Cohen SM, Khoury T, Khoury T, Bashir MA, Martin MG, Keshinro SO, & Fagbenro GT. (2018) Frequency of breast cancer subtypes among African American women in AMBER consortium. Breast Cancer research 20-12.

Adeniyi AA, Dawodu OO, Habeebu MY, Oyekan AO, Bashir MA, Martin MG, Keshinro SO, & Fagbenro GT. (2020) Distribution of Breast Cancer Subtypes Among Nigerian Women and Correlation to the Risk Factors and Clinicopathological Characteristics. World Journal of Oncology. 11: 165-172

Soto AM & Sonnenschein C (2010). Environmental causes of cancer: endocrine disruptors as carcinogens. Nature Reviews Endocrinology. 6:363-370.

American Cancer Society. Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2017-2018. https://www.cancer.org/content/dam/cancer-org/research/cancer-facts-and-statistics/breast-cancer-facts-and-figures/breast-cancer-facts-and-figures-2017-2018.pdf

Russo J & Russo IH (2006). The role of estrogen in the initiation of breast cancer. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 006 Dec; 102(1-5): 89-96

Rodgers KM, Udesky JO, Rudel RA, & Brody JG (2018). Environmental chemicals and breast cancer: An updated review of epidemiological literature informed by biological mechanisms. Environmental Research. 160:152–182.

Cohn A, Wolff MS, Cirillo PM, & Sholtz RI (2007). DDT and breast cancer in young women: new data on the significance of age at exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives. 115:1406–1414.

Gray JM, Rasanayagam S, Engel C, & Rizzo J (2017). State of the evidence 2017: An update on the connection between breast cancer and the environment. Environmental Health. 16:94. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12940-017-0287-4

Diethylstilbestrol. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diethylstilbestrol(accessed Dec 11, 2020).

Noller KL & Fish CR. Diethylstilbestrol usage: Its interesting past, important present, and questionable future. Med. Clin. North Am. 1974; 58:793–810. doi:10.1016/S0025-7125(16)32122-8. PMID 4276416

Elks J. The Dictionary of Drugs. Chemical Data: Structures and Bibliographies. Springer. 2014; pp. 396–. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3.

Kuhl H (2005). Pharmacology of estrogens and progestogens: influence of different routes of administration. Climacteric. 8: 3–63. doi:10.1080/13697130500148875.

Veurink M, Koster M, & Berg LT (2005). The history of DES, lessons to be learned. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy. 2005; 27: 139–43. doi:10.1007/s11096-005-3663-z.

Titus-Ernstoff L, Hatch EE, Hoover RN, Palmer J, Greenberg ER, Ricker W, Kaufman R, Noller K, Herbst Al, Colton T, & Hartge P (2001). Long-term cancer risk in women given diethylstilbestrol (DES) during pregnancy. British Journal of Cancer. 84: 126-33.

Hoover RN, Hyer M, Pfeiffer RM, Adam E, Bond B, Cheville AL, Colton T, Hartge P, Hatch EE, Herbst AL, Karlan BY, Kaufman R, Noller KL, Palmer JR, Robboy SJ, Saal RC, Strohsnitter W, Titus-Ernstoff L, & Troisi R. (2011). Adverse health outcomes in women exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol. The New England Journal of Medicine. 365: 1304-14.

DES Update: For Consumers. United States Department of Health and Human Services: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/des/consumers/.(Retrieved June 30, 2011).

Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and Cancer. National Cancer Institute. https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/hormones/des-fact-sheet). (Retrieved June 30 2011).

Arnold A (2017). The Devastating Effects of a 1940s 'Wonder Pill' Haunt Women Generations Later.Broadly https://www.vice.com/en/article/zmbvp9/des-daughters-the-devastating-effects-of-a-1940s-wonder-pill-haunt-women-generations-later

CoelinghBennink HJ (2004). Are all estrogens the same? Maturitas. 47: 269–75. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2003.11.009. PMID 15063479

Lavoie D (2013). DES Pregnancy Drug Lawsuit: Settlement Reached Between Melnick Sisters And Eli Lilly And Co. Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 10 January 2013. (Retrieved March 19, 2014).

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2020). Progestin-Only Hormonal Birth Control: Pill and Injection. https://www.acog.org/womens-health/faqs/progestin-only-hormonal-birth-control-pill-and-injection

Nwadike VR & Smith L (2020). 10 most common birth control pill side effects. Medical News Today. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/290196

Johnson TC (2022). Other Reasons to Use Birth Control. WebMD. https://www.webmd.com/sex/birth-control/ss/slideshow-birth-control-other-reasons

Althuis MD, Brogan DR, Coates RJ, Daling JR, Gammon MD, Malone KE, Schoenberg JB, & Brinton LA (2003). Hormonal content and potency of oral contraceptives and breast cancer risk among young women. British Journal of Cancer. 88:50–7.

Delort L, Kwiatkowski F, Chalabi N, Satih S, Bignon Y-J, & Bernard-Gallon DJ (2007). Risk factors for early age at breast cancer onset—the “COSA program” population-based study. Anticancer Research. 27:1087–94.

Dai Q, Liu B, & Du Y (2009). Meta-analysis of the risk factors of breast cancer concerning reproductive factors and oral contraceptive use. Frontiers of Medicine China. 3:452–8.

Pasanisi P, Hédelin G, Berrino J, Chang-Claude J, Hermann S, Steel M, Haites N, Hart J, Peled R, Gafà L, Leggio L, Traina A, Amodio R, Primic-Zakelj M, Zadnik V, Veidebaum T, Tekkel M, & Berrino F (2009). Oral contraceptive use and BRCA penetrance: A case-only study. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. 18:2107–13.

Kumle M, Weiderpass E, Braaten T, Persson I, Adami H-O, & Lund E (2002). Use of oral contraceptives and breast cancer risk: The Norwegian-Swedish Women’s lifestyle and health cohort study. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. 11:1375–81.

Rosenberg L, Boggs DA, Wise LA, Adams-Campbell LL, & Palmer JR (2010). Oral contraceptive use and estrogen/progesterone receptor-negative breast cancer among African American women. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. 19:2073–9.

Huzell L, Persson M, Simonsson M, Markkula A, Ingvar C, Rose C, & Jernström H (2015). History of oral contraceptive use in breast cancer patients: Impact on prognosis and endocrine treatment response. Breast Cancer Research Treatment. 149:505–15.

Bethea TN, Rosenberg L, Hong C-C, Troester MA, Lunetta KL, Bandera EV, Schedin P, Kolonel LN, Olshan AF, Ambrosone CB, & Palmer JR (2015). A case-control analysis of oral contraceptive use and breast cancer subtypes in the African American breast cancer epidemiology and risk consortium. Breast Cancer Research. 17:22.

Rosenberg L, Zhang Y, Coogan PF, Strom BL, & Palmer JR (2009). A case-control study of oral contraceptive use and incident breast cancer. American Journal of Epidemiology. 169:473–9.

Haile RW, Thomas DC, McGuire V, Felberg A, John EM, & Milne RL (2006). BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, oral contraceptive use, and breast cancer before age 50. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers Preview. 15:1863–70.

Narod SA, Dubé MP, Klijn J, Lubinski J, Lynch HT, Ghadirian P, Provencher D, Heimdal K, Moller P, Robson M, Offit K, Isaacs C, Weber B, Friedman E, Gershoni-Baruch R, Rennert G, Pasini B, Wagner T, Daly M, Garber JE, Neuhausen SL, Ainsworth P, Olsson H, Evans G, Osborne M, Couch F, Foulkes WD, Warner E, Kim-Sing C, Olopade O, Tung N, Saal HM, Weitzel J, Merajver S, Gauthier-Villars M, Jernstrom H, Sun P, & Brunet JS (2002). Oral contraceptives and the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 94:1773–9.

Dolle JM, Daling JR, White E, Brinton LA, Doody DR, Porter PL, & Malone KE (2009). Risk factors for triple-negative breast cancer in women under the age of 45 years. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarker Preview. 18:1157–66.

Phillips LS, Millikan RC, Schroeder JC, Barnholtz-Sloan JS, & Levine BJ (2009). Reproductive and hormonal risk factors for ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarker Preview. 18:1507–15.

Pervez S & Khan H (2007). Infiltrating ductal carcinoma breast with central necrosis closely mimicking ductal carcinoma in situ (comedo type): A case series. Journal of Medical Case Report. 1:83. doi:10.1186/1752-1947-1-83.

Calle EE, Heath J, Miracle-McMahill HL, Coates RJ, Liff JM, & Franceschi S (1996). Breast cancer and hormonal contraceptives: Collaborative reanalysis of individual data on 53 297 women with breast cancer and 100 239 women without breast cancer from 54 epidemiological studies. Lancet. 347:1713–27.

Vessey M & Painter R (2006). Oral contraceptive use and cancer. Findings in a large cohort study, 1968-2004. British Journal of Cancer. 95:385–9.

Beaber EF, Buist DSM, Barlow WE, Malone KE, Reed SD, & Li CI (2014). Recent oral contraceptive use by formulation and breast cancer risk among women 20 to 49 years of age. Cancer Research. 74:4078–89.

Urban M, Banks E, Egger S, Canfell K, O’Connell D, Beral V, & Sitas F (2012). Injectable and oral contraceptive use and cancers of the breast, cervix, ovary, and endometrium in black south African women: Case-control study. PLoSone Medicine. 9:e1001182.

UNFPA. Adolescent and youth demographics: A brief overview

http://www.unfpa.org/resources/adolescent-and-youth-demographicsa-brief-overview

The World Bank Group The Challenge: Reducing Poverty. http://www.worldbank.org/progress/reducing_poverty.html. (accessed October 24, 2014)

Chandra-Mouli V, McCarraher DR, Phillips SJ, Williamson NE, & Hainsworth G (2014). Contraception for adolescents in low- and middle-income countries: needs, barriers, and access. Reproductive Health. 11: p. 1

Bearinger LH, Sieving RE, & Ferguson JV (2007). Sharma Global perspectives on the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents: patterns, prevention, and potential. Lancet. 369:1220-31

Chen XK, Wen SW, Fleming N, Demissie K, Rhoads GG, & Walker M (2007). Teenage pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes: a large population based retrospective cohort study. International Journal of Epidemiology. 36:368-73

Blanc AK, Tsui AO, Croft TN, & Trevitt JL (2009). Patterns and trends in adolescents' contraceptive use and discontinuation in developing countries and comparisons with adult women. International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health. 35:63-71

National HIV Strategy for Adolescents and Young People 2016-2020. National Agency for the Control of AIDS. NACA. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---ilo_aids/documents/legaldocument/wcms_532857.pdf

World Health Organization. Preventing early pregnancy and poor reproductive outcomes among adolescents in developing countries: what the evidence says [Internet]. World Health Organization. 2011. [cited 2022 Jan 19]. Available from: https://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/documents/preventing_early_pregnancy_brief.pdf

Worldometer (Live). Nigeria Population. https://www.worldometers.info/world-population/nigeria-population/

United Nations Population Fund. Adolescents and Youth Dashboard-Nigeria. https://www.unfpa.org/data/adolescent-youth/NG (accessed July 7, 2020)

Otobo TM, Paul JN, & Isikaku OO (2018). Age at menarche in Nigeria adolescent girls case study: (Igbo, Yoruba, Hausa and Engenni Tribes of Nigeria. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research. ejpmr. 5:152-60

Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (2013). National Population Commission Federal Republic of Nigeria Abuja, Nigeria. ICF International Rockville, Maryland, USA. June 2014. https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR293/FR293.pdf

World health organization. Family planning/contraception methods. 22 June 2020. https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/family-planni... (accessed July 29, 2020).

World Health organization (2008). Unsafe abortion. Global and regional estimates of the incidence of unsafe abortion and associated mortality in 2008. Sixth Edition.

Family Planning: A Global Handbook for Providers. 2018 World Health Organization and Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/260156/9780999203705-eng.pdf?sequence=1

World Health Organization (WHO). Family planning/contraception methods. 22 June 2020. https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/family-planni...

Condom. Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/condom

Cecil Adams (1994). Can HIV pass through the pores in latex condoms? The Straight Hope. . https://www.straightdope.com/columns/read/1178/can-hiv-pass-through-the-pores-in-latex-condoms/

World Health Organization. Nonoxynol-9 ineffective in preventing HIV infection. https://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/notes/release55/en/ (accessed July 30, 2020)

WebMD. Warning for Spermicide Nonoxynol-9 https://www.webmd.com/sex-relationships/news/20030117/warning-spermicide-nonoxynol-9 Jan. 16, 2003. (accessed July 30, 2020).

Planned Parenthood. What are the disadvantages of using spermicide?. https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/birth-control/spermicide/what-are-disadvantages-using-spermicide. (accessed July 30, 2020).

Kippley J & Kippley S (1996). The Art of Natural Family Planning (4th addition ed.). Cincinnati, OH: The Couple-to-Couple League. ISBN 978-0-926412-13-2.

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) (1982). A Cluster of Kaposi’s Sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinii Pseumonia among homosexual male residents of Los Angeles and range Counties, California. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 31:305-7

Walder Rupert (2007). Condom Fatigue in Western Europe? http://ww.rhrealitycheck.org/blog/2007/08/31/condom-fatigue-in-western-europe (retrieved June 29, 2008.

HealthThink Analytics (2017). Contraceptive use and the adolescent girl child. https://healththink.org/contraceptive-use-and-the-adolescent-girl-child/

Weller, Susan C.; Davis-Beaty, Karen (2002). "Condom effectiveness in reducing heterosexual HIV transmission". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003255

Alsan M (2006). The Church & AIDS in Africa: Condoms & the Culture of Life. Commonweal: A Review of Religion, Politics, and Culture. 133: (8) (retrieved Nov 28, 2006).

Gomex Cynthia A, Marin Gender, Culture, and Power (1996). Barriers to HIV-Prevention, Strategies for Women. The journal of Sex Research. 33:355-62.

Kalichman SC, Willaims EA, Cherry C, Belcher L, & Nachimson D (1998). Sexual coercion, domestic violence, and negotiating condom use among low-income African American women. Journal of Women’s Health. 7:371-8.

Dotinga R (2009). AIDS Conspiracy Theory Belief Linked to Less Condom Use. SexualHealth.com http://sexualhealth.e-healthsource.com/?p=news1&id=523594.

Muslim opposition to condoms limits distribution (2007). Plus News. http://www.plusnews.org/report.aspx? Reported=74336. (retrieved march 26, 2009).

Coast E (2007). Wasting semen: Context and condom use among the Maasai. Culture, Health & Sexuality. 9:387-401.

Kamau P (2008). Islam, Condoms and AIDS. The Huffington Post. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/pius-kamau/islam-condomsand-aids_b_120418. (retrieved march 26, 2009).

Guza M (2018). Condoms criminalized in Allegheny Country prostitution cases. Trib Live. (Retrieved June 6, 2018).

Miaozong Wu, James McIntosh, & Jian Liu (2016). Current prevalence rate of latex allergy: Why it remains a problem? Journal of Occupational Health 58:138-44.

Grzybowski MJ, Ownby D, Ander D, & Nowak R (2002). The prevalence of latex-specific IgE in patients presenting to an urban emergency department. Annals of Emergency Medicine 40:411-9.

National Population Commission and ICF Macro. Nigeria Demograpgic and health Survey 2008. National Population Commission and ICF Macro; Abuja, Nigeria 2009. https://www.dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR222/FR222.pdf

Fatusi AO & Blum RB (2009). Adolescent health in an international context: the challenge of sexual and reproductive Health in Sub-Saharan Africa. Adolescent Medicine: State of Art Review. 20:874–886.

Federal Ministry of Health. National HIV/AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey, 2007 (NARHS Plus) Federal Ministry of Health; Abuja, Nigeria: 2008

Federal Ministry of Health. National HIV & AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey 2012 (NARHS Plus) Federal Ministry of Health; Abuja, Nigeria: 2013. https://naca.gov.ng/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/NARHS-Plus-2012-Final-18112013.pdf.

Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2013. National Population Commission Federal Republic of Nigeria Abuja, Nigeria. ICF International Rockville, Maryland, USA. June 2014. USAID, UKaid, UNFPA, National Population Commission. https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR293/FR293.pdf

Government and partners rally against adolescent pregnancy and unsafe abortions. Abuja, 14 December, 2018. 2020 WHO / Regional Office for Africa. https://www.afro.who.int/news/government-and-partners-rally-again.

Abortion in Nigeria 2015. Guttmocher Institute. Fact Sheet. https://wwwguttmacher.org/fact-sheet/abortion-nigeria (accessed August 7, 2020)

Lovine R, Lioyd C, Greene M, & Grown C (2008). Girls Count. Washington DC: Center for Global Development.

Morris JL & Rushwan H (2015). Adolescent sexual and reproductive health: The global challenges. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 131:S40-S42.

Folayan MO, Odetoyinbo M, Harrison A, & Brown B (2014). Tackling the Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights of Adolescents Living with HIV/AIDS: A Priority Need in Nigeria. African Journal of Reproductive Health. 18:102-8.

Wellings K, Collumbien M, Slaymaker E, Singh S, Hodges Z, Patel D, & Bajos N (2006). Sexual behavior in context: a global perspective. Lancet. 368:1706-1728.

Cleland J, Ali M, & Shah I (2006). Trends in protective behavior among single versus married young women in Sub-Saharan Africa: the big picture. Reproductive Health matters. 14:17-122

National HIV Strategy for Adolescents and Young People 2016-2020. National Agency For The Control of AIDS (NACA). https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---ilo_aids/documents/legaldocument/wcms_532857.pdf

Otoide VO, Oronsaye F, & Okonofua F (2001). Why Nigerian adolescents seek abortion rather than contraceptives: Evidence from focus group discussions. International Perspective on Sexual and Reproductive Health. 27:77-81.

Ezire O, Idogho O, Theophilus A, Ikani S, & Oluigbo O (2014). Study on the patterns and trend in contraceptive use in South-South and North-Western zones of Nigeria: 2003-2010. Dove press. 5:65-72.

Oyedele OA, Wright SCD, & Maja TMM (2013). Prevention of teenage pregnancies in Soshanguve, South Africa: Using the Johnson behavioural system model. Africa Journal of Nursing and Midwifery. 15:95-108.

Jewkes R, Vundule C, Maforah F, & Jordan E (2001). Relationship dynamics and teenage pregnancy in South Africa. Social Science & Medicine 52:733-744.

Abiodun OM & Balogun OR (2009). Sexual activity and contraceptive use among young female students of tertiary educational institutions in Illorin, Nigeria. Contraception 79:146-149.

Biddlecom AE, Munthali A, Singh S, & Woog V (2007). Adolescents’ views of and preferences for sexual and reproductive health services in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi and Uganda. African Journal of Reproductive Health. 11:99-110.

Blanc A & Way A (1998). Sexual behavior and contraceptive knowledge and use among adolescents in developing countries. Studies in Family Planning. 29:106-16

Findlay S. Nigerian women face their fears and start using contraception. Special Report Health Sector. The Financial Times Limited. October 11, 2017. https://www.ft.com/content/02fb4c8e-75ff-ile7-a3e8-60495fe6ca71.

Caldwell JC & Caldwell P (2002). The Fertility Transition in Sub-Saharan Africa. A paper presented at the Conference. Fertility and the Current South African Issues of Poverty, HIV/AIDS and Youth. Pretoria, South Africa.

Alayande A, Bello-Garko B, Umeh G, & Nuhu I (2019). Access to contraceptives for adolescents in northern Nigeria—a cross-sectional study from three secondary health facilities in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna. [version 1; peer review: 1 approved with reservations] Gates Open Research. 3:1476 (https://doi.org/10.12688/gatesopentres. 12968.1)

International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH). London: F1GO: 2011 http://www.figo.org/figo-project-publications.

Mohammad Z & Maimuna DG (2014). Contraceptive trend in a tertiary facility in North Western Nigeria: A 10-year review. Nigeria Journal of Basic Clinical Science. 11:99-103.

Nare C, Kate K, & Tolly E (1997). Adolescents’ access to reproductive health and family planning services in Dakar (Senegal). African Journal of Reproductive Health. 1:15-24.

Olowu F (1998). Quality and cost of family planning as elicited by an adolescent mystery client trail in Nigeria. African Journal of Reproductive Health. 12:49-60.

Egede JO, Onoh RC, Ugochukwu O, Umeora J, Iyoke CA, Dimejis IBO, & Lawani LO (2015). Contraceptive prevalence and preference in a cohort of south-east Nigerian women. Patient Preference and Adherence. Dovepress 9:707-14

Okonofua FE, Ogonor JI, Omorodion FI, Temin MT, Coplan PA, & Kaufman JA (1999). Assessment of health services for treatment of sexually transmitted infections among Nigerian adolescents. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. 26:184-90.

MacPhail C, Pettifor AE, Pascoe S, & Rees HV (2007). Contraceptive use and pregnancy among 15–24-year-old South African women: a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. BioMed Central Medicine. 2007. Vol 5, .

Gomes K, Speizer IS, & Oliveira D (2008). Contraceptive method use by adolescents in a Brazilian state capital. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology 1:213-219

Sheeder J, Tocce K, & Stevens-Simd C (2009). Reasons for ineffective contraceptive use antedating adolescent pregnancies, Part 1: an indicator of gaps in family planning services. Maternal and Child Health. 13:295-305.

Ali M & Cleland J (2004). Reproductive consequences of contraceptive failure in 19 developing countries. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 104: 314-320.

Blanc AK, Tsui A, Croft TN, & Trevitt JL (2009). Patterns and Trends in Adolescents’ Contraceptive Use and Discontinuation in Developing Countries and Comparisons with Adult Women. International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive health. 35:63-71.

Sedgh G, Hussain R, Bankole A, & Singh S (2007). Women with an unmet need for contraception in developing countries and their reasons for not using a method. Occasional Report. New York: Guttmacher Institute. No 37. https://www.guttmacher.org/report/unmet-need-for-contraception-in-developing-countries.

Kulas M (2014). Analytical methods of family planning [webpage on the Internet]. Santa Monica: Livestrong.com. http://www.livestrong.com/article/205455-methods-for-family-planning/#ixzz2VeHR1uDK

Adebayo SB, Gayawan E, Ujuju C, & Ankomah A (2013). Modelling geographical variations and determinants of use of modern family planning methods among women of reproductive age in Nigeria. Journal of Biosocial Science. 45:57-77.

Mohammad Z & Maimuna DG (2014). Contraceptive trend in a tertiary facility in North Western Nigeria: A 10-year review. Nigeria Journal of Basic Clinical Science. 11:99-103. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.460.6362&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Arukaino U (2016). Nigerian women abuse fertility drugs—Dr Abayomi Ajayi. An In Vitro Fertilization specialist. http://punchng.com/nigerian-women-abuse-fertility-drugs-ajayi/.

Akpor OA & Thupayagale-Tshweneagae G (2019). Teenage pregnancy in Nigeria: professional nurses and educators’ perspectives [version 1; peer review: 2 approved]. F1000Research. 8:31 (https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.16893.1).

Edukugbo E (2015). Teenage Pregnancy: Anatomy of ‘the number one killer of girls!’ Vanguard. https://www.vanguardngr.com/2015/02/teenage-pregnancy-anatom.

Whitehead E. (2009) Understanding the association between teenage pregnancy and inter-generational factors: a comparative and analytical study. Midwifery. School of Health and Social Care, University of Chester, 25: 147–154.

Babafemi AA & Adeleke JJ (2012). Health and social problems of teenage pregnancy and future childbearing in Amassoma community, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Research Journal of Medical Science. 6: 251–260.

Federal Ministry of Health, Nigeria. National HIV/AIDS. Reproductive Health Survey 2007. http://ghdx.healthdata.org/record/nigeria-national-hivaids-and-reproductive-health-survey-2007

Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2013. National Population Commission Federal Republic of Nigeria Abuja, Nigeria. ICF International Rockville, Maryland, USA. 2014. https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR293/FR293.pdf

Folayan MO, Haire B, Harrison A, Fatusi O, & Brown B (2014). Beyond informed consent: Ethical considerations in the design and implementation of sexual and reproductive health research among adolescents. African Journal of Reproductive Health.. https://www.ncbi.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4600029/

Federal Ministry of Health. Guidelines for Young Persons’ Participation in Research and Access to Sexual and Reproductive Health Services in Nigeria August 2014. https://www.popcouncil.org/uploads/pdfs/2014HIV-YoungPersonsSRH-Nigeria.pdf

An Overview of Consent to Reproductive Health Services by Young People. Guttmacher Institute August 1, 2020. https://www.guttmacher.org/print/state-policy/explore/overview-minors-consent-law (accessed September 4, 2020)

Folayan MO, Haire B, Harrison A, Odetoyingbo M, Fatusi O, & Brown B (2014). Beyond Informed Consent: Ethical Considerations in the Design and Implementation of Sexual and Reproductive Health Research Among Adolescents. African Journal of Reproductive Health. 18: 118-126.

Federal Government of Nigeria. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999. https://publicofficialsfinancialdisclosure.worldbank.org/sites/fdl/files/assets/law-library-files/Nigeria_Constitution_1999_en.pdf

Federal Ministry of Women Affairs, Nigeria. Second country report, 2001, Convention on the right of the child. file:///C:/Users/dfgh/AppData/Local/Temp/G1040066.pdf

CHILD’S RIGHT ACT 2003. Acts No. 26. An Act to provide and protect the rights of a Nigerian Child; and other related matters, 2003. Enacted by the National Assembly of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. 31st July, 2003.

Akpor OA & Thupayagale-Tshweneagae G (2019). Teenage pregnancy in Nigeria: professional nurses and educators’ perspectives [version 1; peer review: 2 approved] F1000Research. 8:31. https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.16893.1

Federal Ministry of Health. Guidelines for young persons’ participation in research and access to sexual and reproductive health services in Nigeria. August 2014. https://www.popcouncil.org/uploads/pdfs/2014HIV-YoungPersonsSRH-Nigeria.pdf

Adesegun Fatusi, & Robert W Blum (2009). Adolescent health in an international context: the challenge of sexual and reproductive health in sub-Saharan Africa. Adolescent Medicine: State of the Art Rev.20(3):874-886.

National Population Commission Nigeria, ICF International (2013). Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2022 Jan 20]. Available from: https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR293/FR293.pdf

Morenike OF, Morolake O, Abigail H, & Brandon B. Tackling the sexual and reproductive health and rights of adolescents living with HIV/AIDS: A priority need in Nigeria (2014). African Journal of Reproductive Health. 18(3 0 0): 102–108.

Abiodun AO & Thupayagale-Tshweneagae G (2019). Teenage pregnancy in Nigeria: professional nurses and educators’ perspectives. F1000Research. 8:31.

Teenage Pregnancy [Internet]. Wikipedia. [cited 2022 Jan 20]. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teenage_pregnancy

Ekefre EN, Ekanem SA, & Esien OE (2014). Teenage Pregnancy and Education in Nigeria: A Philo-Sociological Management Strategy. Journal of Educational and Social Research. 4(3):41–7.

Stephanie F (2017). Nigerian women face their fears and start using contraception/Financial Times [Internet]. Available from https://www.ft.com/content/02fb4c8e-75ff-11e7-a3e8-60495fe6ca71

Oyedele OA, Susan CDW, & Todd MMM (2013). Prevention of teenage pregancies in soshanguve, South Africa: Using the johnson behavioural system model. African Journals of Nursursing and Midwifery. 15(1):95-108

Olumide Yetunde Mercy. Personal unpublished data obtained from adolescents at the STD Clinic.

Makinwa-Adebusoye P (1991). Adolescent Reproductive Behaviour in Nigeria: A Study of Five Cities. Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research Monograph Series, Ibadan. Vol 3. no 3.

Otoide V, Oronsaye , & Okonofua F (2001). Why Nigerian Adolescents Seek Abortion Rather than Contraception: Evidence from Focus-Group Discussions. International Family Plan Perspectives. 27(2): 77–81.

L'Engle K, Brown J, & Keeneavy K (2006). 'Mass Media ae an Important Context for adolescents' sexual behaviour: Journal of Adolescent Health. 38(3): 186-192.

Allison A (2008). Study Links Sex On TV Shows To Teen Pregnancies. https://www.npr.org/2008/11/03/96520561/study-links-sex-on-tv-shows-to-teen-pregnancies#:~:text=Study%20Links%20Sex%20On%20TV%20Shows%20To%20Teen%20Pregnancies%20Watching,or%20get%20a%20partner%20pregnant.

Abebayo T (2012). Decriminalisation Of Bigamy In Lagos State And Its Legal Implications [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jan 20]. Available from: https://topeadebayollp.wordpress.com/2012/02/15/decriminalisation-of-bigamy-in-lagos-state-and-its-legal-implications/

McCourtie S (2017). Educating Girls, Ending Child Marriage [Internet]. The World Bank. [cited 2022 Jan 20]. Available from: https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/immersive-story/2017/08/22/educating-girls-ending-child-marriage

Adebayo AA (2018). Implications of Boko Haram operations on girl-child education in North-Eastern Nigeria. Gender Behavior. 16(1):11085–98.

Isokpan Jennifer, Durojaye Ebenezer (2017). Impact of the Boko Haram Insurgency on the Child’s Right to Education in Nigeria. Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal. 19:1–43.

Dumbili E (2013). Changing patterns of alcohol consumption in Nigeria: an exploration of responsible factors and consequences. A J BSA Medical Sociol Online. 97:20–33.

Female Secret Cult Group With Sex As Mode For Initiation Uncovered In Benin [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2022 Jan 25]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pLbG2uTLrNc

Heise NL, Moore K, & Toubia N (1995). Sexual coercion and reproductive health: A focus on research. Reprod Health. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1996-97064-000

McCauley P, Salter C, Kiragu K, & Senderowitz J (1995). Meeting the needs of young adults. Population Rep Journal. 41:1-43.

Folayan M, Odetoyinbo M, Harrison A, & Brown B (2014). Rape in Nigeria: a silent epidemic among adolescents with implications for HIV infection. Glob Heal Action. 7(1): 25583. doi:10.3402/gha.v7.25583

Ajuwon A, Adeniyi O, Banji F, & Oladapo L (2006). Sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion among secondary school students in three states in North Eastern Nigeria. BMC Public Health. 6:1-10

Ajuwon A, Oladepo O, Adeniyi J, & Brieger W (2008). Sexual practices that may favor the transmission of HIV in a rural community in Nigeria. In: Progress in Preventing Aids?: Dogma, Dissent and Innovation: Global Perspectives. Taylor and Francis; 21–34.

Orubuloye O, Caldwell P, & Caldwell JC (1993). The Role of High-Risk Occupations in the Spread of AIDS: Truck Drivers and Itinerant Market Women in Nigeria. International Family Planing Perspectives. 19(2): 43-48.

Abiodun AO & Thupayagale-Tshweneagae G (2019). Teenage pregnancy in Nigeria: professional nurses and educators’ perspectives. F1000Research. 8:31.

WHO. Making health services adolescent friendly: Developing national quality standards for adolescent friendly health services [Internet]. World Health Organization. 2012 [cited 2022 Jan 25].

Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/75217/9789241503594_eng.pdf;jsessionid=E8191A1E3A13AA800664AD5482B4C0D2?sequence=1

WHO. Global standards for quality health care services for adolescents [Internet]. World Health Organization. 2015 [cited 2022 Jan 25]. Available from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/183935/9789241549332_vol1_eng.pdf?sequence=1

WHO. Adolescent pregnancy [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2022 Jan 25]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/adolescent-pregnancy

Adeyinka D, Oladimeji O, Adekanbi T, Adeyinka F, Falope Y, & Aimakhu C (2010). Outcome of adolescent pregnancies in southwestern Nigeria: a case–control study. Journal of Matern Neomatal Medicine. 23(8):785-789.

Babafemi AA & Adeleke AJ (2012). Health and social problems of teenage pregnancy and future childbearing in Amassoma Community, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Research Journal of Medical Science. 6: (5) 251–260.

Nour N (2006). Health Consequences of Child Marriage in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseses. 12(11):1644-9.

Vesicovaginal fistula [Internet]. Wikipedia. [cited 2022 Jan 25]. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vesicovaginal_fistula

Waaldijk K (1995). Surgical classification of obstetric fistulas. International Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics. 49:(2) 161–163.

Ahmad S, Nishtar A, Hafeez G, & Khan Z (2005). Management of vesico-vaginal fistulas in women. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 88(1):71–75.

Cron J(2003). Lessons from the developing world: obstructed labor and the vesico-vaginal fistula [Internet]. Vol. 5, Medscape. [cited 2022 Feb 2]. Available from: https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/455965

Degge HM (2018). Experiences of Women with Obstetric Fistula in Nigeria: A Narrative Inquiry. [Hull]: The University Of Hull. http://hydra.hull.ac.uk/resources/hull:16588

Daru P, Karshima J, Mikah S, & Nyango D (2011). The Burden of Vesico-Vaginal Fistula In North Central NigerIa. Journal of West African College of Surgeons. 1:(12) 62.

Ijaiya M-DA, Ijaiya MA, Rahman AG, Aboyeji AP, Olatinwo AWO, Esuga SA, Ogah OK, Raji HO, Adebara IO, Akintobi AO, Adeniran AS, & Adewole AA (2010). Vesicovaginal Fistula: A Review of Nigerian Experience. West Africa Journal of Medicine. 29(5): 293–298.

National Council of Women’s Organizations [Internet]. Wikipedia. [cited 2022 Jan 28]. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Council_of_Women%27s_Organizations

Ganchimeg T, Ota E, Morisaki N, et al (2014). Pregnancy and childbirth outcomes among adolescent mothers: a World Health Organization multicountry study. BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 121(1):40–48.

Federal Ministry of Health. Saving Newborn Lives in Nigeria: Newborn Health in the context of the Integrated Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Strategy – Healthy Newborn Network [Internet]. Healthy Newborn Network. 2011 [cited 2022 Jan 28]. Available from: https://www.healthynewbornnetwork.org/resource/saving-newborn-lives-in-nigeria-newborn-health-in-the-context-of-the-integrated-maternal-newborn-and-child-health-strategy/

WHO, UNICEF, World Bank Group, United Nations Population Division. Trends in Maternal Mortality: 1990 to 2015 | United Nations Population Fund [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2022 Jan 28]. Available from: https://www.unfpa.org/publications/trends-maternal-mortality-1990-2015

Ajala AO (2014). Factors associated with teenage pregnancy and fertility in Nigeria. Journal of economics & sustainable development. www.iiste.org ISSN. 5:62–70.

Federal Ministry of Health. National Strategic Framework on the Health & Development of Adolescents & Young People in Nigeria [Internet]. Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, Nigeria. 2007 [cited 2022 Feb 2]. Available from: https://www.prb.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/National-Strategic-Framework-on-the-Health-and-Development-of-Adolescents-and-Young-People-in-Nigeria-2007-2011.pdf

Rosenthal M, Ross J, Bilodeau RA, Richter R, Palley J, & Bradley E (2009). Economic Evaluation of a Comprehensive Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Program: Pilot Program. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 37(6 Suppl 1): S280-S287.

Raj A & Boehmer U (2013). Girl Child Marriage and Its Association With National Rates of HIV, Maternal Health, and Infant Mortality Across 97 Countries. Violence Against Women. 19(4):536-51.

Community-Based Support (CUBS) Project for Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Nigeria. Developing a program Framework, Approach and Activities to Address the Vulnerability of Girls, Young Women, and Female-Headed Households within the Context of OVC Service Delivery and HIV Risk Reduction [Internet]. Community-Based Support Project for Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Nigeria. 2010 [cited 2022 Feb 2]. Available from: https://www.scribd.com/document/481812989/Engendering-CUBS-Report-FINAL

Olaleye YL & Oladeji D (2010). Single Parenthood Impact on Street Children in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria. African Research Review. 4(2): 1994–9057

Child marriage [Internet]. Wikipedia (cited 2022 Feb 24). Available from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/child_marriage

UNICEF. Child marriage [Internet]. UNICEF. 2020. [ cited 2022 Feb 24]. Available from: https://www.unicef.org/protection/child-marriage

UNICEF (2020). Child marriage [Internet]. UNICEF Data: Monitoring the Situation of Children and Women. [cited 2020 Oct 15]. Available from: https://data.unicef.org/topic/child-protection/child-marriage/

UNFPA, UNICE. Child Marriages in West and Central Africa [Internet]. UNFPA and UNICEF.2018. [cited 2022 Feb 24]. Available from: https://www.unicef.org/wca/media/2596/file

Ujam N (2019). Child Marriage in Nigeria: Wedded to Poverty [Internet]. YaleGlobal Online. [cited 2022 Feb 24]. Available from: https://archive-yaleglobal.yale.edu/content/child-marriage-nigeria-wedded-poverty

Avogo W & Somefun O (2019). Early marriage, cohabitation, and childbearing in West Africa. Journal of Environmental Public Health. 2:1-10.

MaléChata & Wodon Q (2016). Basic Profile of Child Marriage in Nigeria [Internet]. The Health, Nutrition and Population Knowledge Briefs of the World Bank. 2016. [cited 2022 Feb 24]. Available from: https://documents1.world bank.org/curated/en/343531467978984812/pdf/106413-BRI-ADD-SERIES-PUBLIC-HNP-Brief-Nigeria-Profile-CM.pdf

Adedokun O, Adeyemi O, & Dauda C (2017). Child marriage and maternal health risks among young mothers in Gombi, Adamawa State, Nigeria: Implications for mortality, entitlements and freedoms. African health Science. 16(4): 986-999.

UNFPA. Marrying Too Young: End Child Marriage. 2012. [Internet]. United Nations Population Fund. [cited 2022 Feb 28]. Available from: https://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/MarryingTooYoung.pdf

Degge HM (2018). Experiences of Women with Obstetric Fistula in Nigeria: A Narrative Inquiry. A Thesis Submitted to the University of Hull in Fulfilment of the Award of Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Health Studies. [UK]: The University of Hull.

Ganchimeg T, Ota E, Morisaki N, Laopaiboon M, Lumbiganon P, Zhang J, Yamdamsuren B, Temmerman M, Say L, Tunçalp Ö, Vogel JP, Souza JP, & Mori R (2014). Pregnancy and childbirth outcomes among adolescent mothers: a World Health Organization multicountry study. BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 121(Issue 1):40–48

Osakinle E & Tayo-Olajubutu O (2017). Child Marriage and Health Consequences in Nigeria. American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences. 30(1):351-356.

Adedokun Olaide, Adeyemi Oluwagbemiga, & Dauda Cholli (2017). Child marriage and maternal health risks among young mothers in Gombi, Adamawa State, Nigeria: implications for mortality, entitlements and freedoms. African Health Science. 16(4):986–99.

Makinwa - Adebusoye P (2006). Hidden: A Profile of Married Adolescents in Northern Nigeria.. Action Health Incorporated. [Internet]. [cited 2022 Feb 24]. Available from: http://www.actionhealthinc.org/publications/docs/hidden.pdf

Osakinle E, Tayo-Olajubutu O (2017). Child Marriage and Health Consequences in Nigeria. American Academy of Science Research Journal of English Technology and Science. 30(1):351-6.

Babafemi AA & Adeleke AJ (2012). Health and social problems of teenage pregnancy and future childbearing in Amassoma Community, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Research Journal of Medical Science. 6(5):251–60.

Laga M, Schwärtlander B, Pisani E, Sow PS, & Caraël M (2001). To stem HIV in Africa, prevent transmission to young women. AIDS. 15(7):931–4.

Clark S, Bruce J, & Dude A (2006). Protecting young women from HIV/AIDS: the case against child and adolescent marriage. International Family Planing Perspectives. 32(2):79–88.

Nour N (2006). Health Consequences of Child Marriage in Africa. Emergency Infectious Diseases. 12(11):1644–9.

Yetunde Mercy Olumide. Personal observations. Unpublished data.

Girls Not Brides (2016). Taking action to address child marriage: the role of different sectors [Internet]. Girls Not Brides. [cited 2022 Feb 28]. Available from: https://www.girlsnotbrides.org/learning-resources/resource-centre/child-marriage-brief-role-of-sectors/

UNFPA (2012). Marrying Too Young: End Child Marriage. [Internet]. United Nations Population Fund. [cited 2022 Feb 28]. Available from: https://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/MarryingTooYoung.pdf

Lee-Rife S, Malhotra A, Warner A, & Glinski AM (2012). What Works to Prevent Child Marriage: A Review of the Evidence. Study Family Planning. 43(4):287–303.

Human Rights Watch (2013). Q & A: Child Marriage and Violations of Girls’ Rights. [Internet]. Human Rights Watch. [cited 2022 Feb 28]. Available from: https://www.hrw.org/news/2013/06/14/q-child-marriage-and-violations-girls-rights

Girls Not Brides (2017). Economic empowerment and child marriage: lessons from Nigeria. [Internet]. Girls Not Brides. [cited 2022 Feb 28]. Available from: https://www.girlsnotbrides.org/articles/economic-empowerment-child-marriage-lessons-nigeria/

Savadogo A & Wodon Q (2017). Impact of Child Marriage on Women’s Earnings across Multiple Countries. Education Global Practice. Washington, DC: The World Bank. https://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/312761498512784050/pdf/116835-BRI-P151842-PUBLIC-EICM-Brief-WorkEarningsHousehold-PrintReady.pdf

World Health Organization (2010). Preventing intimate partner and sexual violence against women: taking action and generating evidence [Internet]. World Health Organization. [cited 2022 Feb 28]. Available from: https://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/publications/violence/9789241564007_eng.pdf

WHO (2021). Violence and Injury Prevention. Intimate partner and sexual violence (violence against women) [Internet]. World Health Organization. [cited 2022 Feb 28]. Available from: https://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/sexual/en/

UNIFEM (2010). Ending Violence Against Women & Girls Evidence, Data and Knowledge in the Pacific Island Countries Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography | [Internet]. United Nations Development Fund for Women. [cited 2022 Feb 28]. Available from: https://www.academia.edu/32872680/https://www.academia.edu/32872680/Ending_Violence_Against_Women_and_Girls_Evidence_Data_and_Knowledge_in_the_Pacific_Island_Countries_Literature_Review_and_Annotated_Bibliography

Bamigbose A (2002). Customary Law Practices and Violence Against Women: The Position under the Nigerian Legal System [Internet]. [cited 2022 Feb 28]. Available from: https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Customary-Law-Practices-and-Violence-Against-Women%3A-Adefunke/72995b1204bbee16508a66fa74bd2d8f9a9b9359#paper-head

Parsons J, Edmeades J, Kes A, Petroni S, Sexton M, & Wodon Q (2015). Economic Impacts of Child Marriage: A Review of the Literature. Review of Faith and International Affairs. 13(3):12–22

Plan International. 16 ways to end violence towards girls [Internet]. Plan International. [cited 2022 Feb 28]. Available from: https://plan-international.org/ending-violence/16-ways-end-violence-girls

Effah J (1996). Modernised slavery: child trade in Nigeria [Internet]. Constitutional Rights Project. [cited 2022 Feb 28]. Available from: https://www.worldcat.org/title/modernised-slavery-child-trade-in-nigeria/oclc/37738850

Women Watch. Directory of UN Resources on Gender and Women’s Issues: Violence against women [Internet]. [cited 2022 Feb 28]. Available from: https://www.un.org/womenwatch/directory/violence_against_women_3004.htm

Danish Immigration Service (2005). Report on human rights issues in Nigeria: Joint British-Danish fact-finding mission to Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria (19 October to 2 November 2004) [Internet]. Danish Immigration Service. [cited 2022 Feb 28]. Available from: https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/1284043/470_1161611888_joint-british-danish-fact-finding-mission-to-abuja-and-lagos.pdf

Amnesty International (AI) (2005). Nigeria: Unheard voices [Internet]. Amnesty International (AI). [cited 2022 Feb 28]. Available from: https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/afr44/004/2005/en/

Women’s Advocates Research and Documentation Centre (WARDC), Women’s Aid Collective (WACOL) (2003). Shari’a implementation in Nigeria : issues & challenges on women’s rights and access to justice. Ezeilo JN, Ladan MT, Afolabi- Akiyode A, editors. Women’s Aid Collective (WACOL); Women Advocates Research and Documentation Centre (WARDC.

Ujam N (2019). Child Marriage in Nigeria: Wedded to Poverty [Internet]. YaleGlobal Online. [cited 2022 Feb 24]. Available from: https://archive-yaleglobal.yale.edu/content/child-marriage-nigeria-wedded-poverty

National Population Commission [Nigeria] (2020). Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 1999. Calverton, Maryland: National Population Commission and ORC/Macro. 2000

UNICEF. Child marriage [Internet]. UNICEF Data: Monitoring the Situation of Children and Women. [cited 2020 Oct 15]. Available from: https://data.unicef.org/topic/child-protection/child-marriage/

UNICEF (2008). Child Marriage and the Law: Legislative Reform Initiative Paper Series [Internet]. United Nations Children’s Fund. [cited 2022 Feb 28]. Available from: https://www.un.org/ruleoflaw/files/Child_Marriage_and_the_Law[1].pdf

UNICEF (2002). Early Marriage: Child Spouses. Innocenti Dig . 7:28.

Avogo W & Somefun O (2019). Early marriage, cohabitation, and childbearing in West Africa. Journal of Environmental Public Health. 2:1-10.

Jones C (2017). Every day 41,000 girls are married under the age of 18. A new World Bank report shows the economic impact of this problem [Internet]. 2017. [cited 2020 Sep 30]. Available from: https://www.undispatch.com/every-day-41000-girls-married-age-18-new-world-bank-report-shows-economic-impact-problem/

The World Bank (2017). Child Marriage will cost developing countries trillions of dollars by 2030, says World Bank [Internet]. The World Bank. [cited 2022 Feb 28]. Available from: https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2017/06/26/child-marriage-will-cost-developing-countries-trillions-of-dollars-by-2030-says-world-bankicrw-report

Travers E (2017). Costs of child marriage: what does the World Bank research say? [Internet]. Girls Not Brides. [cited 2022 Feb 28]. Available from: https://www.girlsnotbrides.org/articles/costs-child-marriage-world-bank-research-say/

Olumide Mercy Yetunde. Fundamental Human Right. Unpublished data

Travers E (2017). Costs of child marriage: what does the World Bank research say? [Internet]. Girls Not Brides. [cited 2022 Feb 28]. Available from: https://www.girlsnotbrides.org/articles/costs-child-marriage-world-bank-research-say/

Action Health Incorporated. Insights into Early Marriage and Girls’ Education in Northern Nigeria [Internet]. Action Health Incorporated. 2011. [cited 2022 Mar 1]. Available from: http://www.actionhealthinc.org/publications/docs/innovators.pdf

The World Bank (2022). Girls’ Education [Internet]. The World Bank. [cited 2022 Feb 24]. Available from: https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/girlseducation#1

Girls Not Brides (2017). Child Marriage and Education: An Information Sheet [Internet]. Girls Not Brides. [cited 2022 Mar 21]. Available from: https://www.girlsnotbrides.org/documents/529/Child-Marriage-and-Education-Girls-Not-Brides-August-2017.pdf

The World Bank (2017). Educating Girls, Ending Child Marriage [Internet]. The World Bank. [cited 2022 Mar 2]. Available from: https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/immersive-story/2017/08/22/educating-girls-ending-child-marriageNguyen Minh Cong, & Wodon Quentin (2012). Child Marriage and Education: A Major Challenge [Internet]. [cited 2022 Mar 2]. Available from: https://nanopdf.com/download/child-marriage-and-education-a-major-challenge_pdf

World Bank Group (2018). World Development Report 2018 : Learning to Realize Education’s Promise [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2022 Mar 21]. Available from: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/28340

Okon D & Ukwayi JK (2012). Challenges and prospects of the millennium development goals (MDGS) in Nigeria. Global journal of social sciences. 11(2):119-132. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjss.v11i2.4

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.