Pharmacognostic, phytochemical, and chemomicroscopic evaluation of Physalis angulata (L)

Zainab B. Arowolo(1), Mubarak O. Ameen(2), Edehia Owen-Obaseki(3), Ibrahim B. Gegele(4), Aliyu Adamu(5), Ruel C. Samuel(6), Jemilat A. Ibrahim(7), Teghtegh F. Samoh(8),

(1) National Institute for Pharmaceutical and Research Development, Idu Industrial Area, Abuja, Nigeria
(2) University of Ilorin, Ilorin
(3) National Institute for Pharmaceutical and Research Development, Idu Industrial Area, Abuja, Nigeria.
(4) National Institute for Pharmaceutical and Research Development, Idu Industrial Area, Abuja, Nigeria
(5) National Institute for Pharmaceutical and Research Development, Idu Industrial Area, Abuja, Nigeria
(6) University of Port Harcourt, Choba
(7) National Institute for Pharmaceutical and Research Development, Idu Industrial Area, Abuja, Nigeria
(8) University of Ilorin, Ilorin
Corresponding Author


Background/Introduction: Since the start of civilization, human culture has used plants to treat illnesses. Many plant samples have been adulterated intentionally or unintentionally during processing or even misidentified during collection. This study aims at authenticating and standardizing of Physalis angulata by carrying out Pharmacognostic evaluation, HPLC and GCMS analysis.

Methodology: The dried leaves of Physalis angulata was extracted with 70% ethanol. Phytochemical screening (qualitative and quantitative screening) analysis was carried out on the ethanolic leave extract using standard method, while the chemical compounds were established with HPLC-DAD and GCMS and Pharmacognostic evaluation was carried out on the powdered leave.

Results and discussion: Qualitative phytochemical analysis of the leave extract reveals the presence of flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloid, tannins and saponin while carbohydrate, glycosides and resins were absent. Quantitative phytochemical screening shows alkaloid present to be 2.4±0.4% and saponin 2±1.32%. HPLC analysis reveals the presence of quercetin, rutin, catechin and ferulic acid while GCMS reveals the presence of cyclohexene, Palmitic acid, 17-Octadecynoic acid, 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid and Phytol. Total Ash content is (15.23±0.43) %w/w with acid insoluble ash of (1.16 ±0.28) %w/w, water soluble ash of (8.13 ±0.32) %w/w, moisture content (5.67 ±0.14) %w/w, alcohol soluble extractive value of (5.76 ±0.40) %w/w and water-soluble extractive value of (10.96 ±0.35) %w/w. Chemomicroscopic evaluation indicate the presence of lignin, cellulose, tannins, starch, calcium oxalate, oils and protein. Microscopy, fluorescence and organoleptic analysis were also documented.

Conclusion: From this study, the presence of valuable phytochemicals has been established from the plant, while HPLC and GCMS revealed the identities of these compounds. Thus, the physico chemical parameters established for Physalis angulata in this study falls within the range approved by WHO (1992) for crude plant and extract.


Pharmacognostic evaluation, phytochemical screening, Physalis angulata, HPLC analysis, and GCMS analysis.


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DOI: 10.57046/AMSC6642


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